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Welcome to this workshop Basics of Photography. We will discuss the following aspects about photography: Aperture, Shutterspeed, Lenses and Sensors.
What is aperture
The aperture controls the amount of light going through the lens. This can be contolled by a ring on the lens to open the gap in the lens wider or more closed.
The numbers on the ring of the lens indicate how wide or closed the aperture is: example : 2 –4 –8 – 11 – 16 – 22
An aperture of 2 means that the lens is opened 1⁄2 or a half of total. With a aperture of 22 the lens is almost closed, not much light is going through the lens.
Why to use the aperture
So the aperture controls the amount of light witch is going through the lens. In the end the light is traveling through the lens to the image-sensor located in the back of the camera. For a good photo the image-sensor has to have the right amount of light. Not to bright, not to dark.
Since the aperture controls the amount of light, you can make a good shot by controling the amount of light with this feature.
What is shutterspeed
The shutterspeed controls when and for how long the light is coming in the camera to the image- sensor. When the photographer wants to make a photo, he pushes the button. Only then at that moment light is coming into the camera to captive the image. Mostly this is only a split second.
The shutterspeed controls for how long the light comes to the image-sensor. This is done by a shutter which opens en close very quickly.
What does shutterspeed
Just like the aperture, as explained in the previous chapter, the shutterspeed controls the amount of light on the image-sensor. With both features you can make a photo brighter or darker by manipulating these controls. The important thing is to set the shutterspeed and aperture to the right settings in order to get a proper photo, not to dark, not to bright.
The shutterspeed has specific numbers to indicate the speed of open up and closure. For example:
These numbers represent the speed in seconds devided by the number. So a speed of 125 means 125th of a second. 1/125
Sharpness and motion
The speed of the shutter also has effect on the sharpness of the photo. When you push the button to make a photo and the shutter is open en close very rapidly, the image will be sharp. But in the case when the shutter opens en closes very slowly, like 1 second, the image can be unsharp if the subject is moving.
For example, if you want to photograph a walking person and the shutterspeed is just set to 1 second, than the walking person will be unsharp. If you set the shutterspeed to very fast, like 125th of a second, the person will be ‘freezed’ and sharp.
Sluitertijd: 1” (1 seconde)
Sluitertijd: 125 (125e van een seconde)
The lens can be defined as the eye of the camera, like the human eye can make you see what you are seeing. The lens is capturing the image and brings it into the camera.
Types of lenses
There are different kind of lenses to mention. Each sort of lens have there specialities. Mainly there are 4 types:
Wide angle lens
Each lens has a specific range or angle of view, as explained in the picture below:
Wide angle lens
The wide-angle lens has a very wide range. When you look straight ahead you can only see some degree on the left and the right side. A wide angle lens has a more wider view than the human eye. It will give you a wide view of the picture. Common use of this type of lens is for documentary and landscape.
A standard lens is in between the wide angle and tele-lens. The angle of the view is about 45 degree, which is about the view of the human eye. The standard lens is usefull for many kind of purposes like portret, landscape and documentary.
A tele-lens brings subjects closer to you. The angle of view is very narrow as can be seen in the picture below. This lens is for example used for sports and wildlife photography.
An other type of lens is the zoom-lens. A zoom-lens is a combination of the lenses mentioned before and can zoom-in to wide angle, standard or tele- range, depending on the type of zoomlens you have.
28 – 70 mm
Wide and standard
70 – 200 mm
Standard and Tele
Lenses defined by Milimeters
Except for the name wide, standard or tele-lens we can define a lens more specific. That is done by the term milimeters, like 200mm lens.
The definition of lenses in milimeters comes from the lenght between the front of the lens to the backend of the camera. A static lens has a static number of milimeters, like: 28mm lens or an 200mm lens. A zoom-lens has a dynamic range. This means the lens is a 28mm to 70mm lens for example.
Range of view
The image-sensor is a smale plate located in the back of the camera. The sensor is sensitive for light, captures the incoming light and converts it into an image.
How does it work
Each radius of light has a certain frequency. Depending on the frequency, the light will be red, green or an other color. For example, if a low frequency of light-radius is coming through the lens, the image-sensor will see this as red. A red pixel will be stored on the location where this light-radius was hit on the image-sensor. All light-radiations together will form an image.
The sensibility of the image-sensor is defined by the term ISO. The greater the sensibilty, the lower the light can be to be able to take a photo. In low-light situations you can set the ISO to a higher level in order to take the photo.
Example: How ever, there is a side-aspect to high ISO-levels. The higher the ISO, the lower the quality of the image. A high ISO-level like 1600, results in a grainy image.
Exposure of light
Important for the final image is that the exposure has to be right. This means, the white has to be white, black has to be black. If the white part of the images turn out to be gray, the photo is under- exposed. When black parts turn gray the photo is over-exposed, to much light came through the camera to the image-sensor.
How to measure light
The camera measures light by defining the average of the lightest part and darkest part of the subject. On auto-settings the camera will do that for you. But since it takes an average of the whole, you not always get what you want.
For example: if your subject is white, and you make a photo with auto-exposure, the result will be 18% gray. That is because the camera thinks in 18% gray.
In order to make this image as white as it should be, you have to over-expose 3 F-stops to make it white. For example if the aperture was f11, you have set it 3 stops more wider: f4. More light is coming through now.
F-stop means 1 step lower or 1 step higher exposure. If we look to the graycard above, we ‘ll see that it takes 7 steps to go from black to white. This means 7 F-stops. To adjust a F-stop you can use the shutterspeed, aperture or ISO to make 1 or more F-stops.
Example of 3 F-stops more light:
By Shutterspeed: 2000–1000–500-250–125–60–30–15: from 500to 60
By Aperture: 1.4 – 1.8 – 2 – 2.8 – 4 – 5.6 – 8 – 11 – 16 : from 11 to 4
By ISO: 50 – 100 – 200 – 400 – 800 – 1600 – 3200 : from 100 to 800
Controling the light
By controling the aperture, shutterspeed and ISO , you are able to control the exposure. All 3 aspects have impact on the exposure and depend on each other.
On May the 25th we started and with a lot of challenges, but now we look back and we are al- most 10 weeks into the training.
We finally took off with our new media training, in which we hope to get among others, new students and potential people interested not only to learn this TV media, but people and the majority that would also become and be part of our future media team.
My name is Jane Adhiambo aged 22, I reside in Kibera, I am the second born in a family of four. I am a first year student at International Multimedia Academy pursuing a diploma in Journalism and mass communication.
I joined the International Multimedia Academy in mid September last year in an effort to make my dreams a reality. I heard about this institution from my friend and decided to try it. During the short period I have been at the institution, I have been able to fully understand some aspects in the media. I have now come to appreciate it and I have changed my attitudes regarding different perspective in life. One of my achievements that I have so far gained is a better perfection in reading, public speaking and personal expression. The training is not that easy if one has some weakness, but I have received help and training and I am trying to overcome mine. The theory part of training had some technical terms also prove very challenging but I am sure I will grasp all of it as time goes by.
Although I experience some difficulties due to the fact that is my house is far away from the school and I have to walk a great distance to reach here I am determined because there is a lot of things I am about to learn in both theory and practical work, cooperation in the future.
Our class has been very successful as most of my fellow classmates share the same dreams and aspiration, we are able to assist each other and consult with the teacher lots of times. Our lecturer is very handful in making the best out of us. Although he can be pretty tough sometimes, we all understand him and appreciate his professional approach and resources towards our success.
The location of training is a good place with a conducive atmosphere as there era no major interruptions from people’s noises or cars. A part from working in class with my fellow students and my lecturer, I also do a lot of research regarding the media in an effort to equip myself professionally.
My future prospect is to one day become a successful writer and TV Journalist. To achieve this goal, I read a lot of books and am even composing my own short stories during my free time. This training will take three years and I am already almost finishing my first year, so it is not that long before I complete it.
I am hoping that with the help of the school and my lecturer and class gained knowledge, I will be able to become what I want to be. A successful writer and TV Journalist.
Hallo! Am Ronald Calcano, a young Kenyan citizen of 24 years, living in kibera slums of Nairobi Kenya. Being one of the largest slums in the world.
I am the last-born in an extended family of six children, having been born in a polygamy family. I am proud for having countless relatives.
I attended my first schooling at Kangemi Primary school and later joined High School in Western Province at Senende High School for quit a number of years. One day while at a barbershop, I saw an advertisement about International multimedia and having interest in the courses being offered, Immediately dialled my phone and called the numbers on the advert.
We made necessary arrangements with the people concerned and immediately began my classes. Having now attended my classes for some months and completed my first Semester, I have gained and achieved a lot. One of them which is knowing how film started and also being able to explain to someone how it all started.
The only weakness that I have and face while undertaking this course is reading the modules and understanding them by myself all alone.
I am looking forward to having learnt a lot after my course in the production field and media as a whole. Presently in my class, we are eight students. The students are friendly and Welcoming, thus creating a conducive environment that one admires to be in. Our teacher who is also the Chief trainer Mr.Mabwa Otinga is also a very free and friendly person but although looks very tough and dangerous when annoyed.
Generally the atmosphere of the school is very friendly and admiring to be a very creative and professional person. Majoring my professionalism in TV production and being one of the best Camera persons. As per my future hopes. I am really working hard and trying to know and master major areas and how I can handle different equipments, which to me I know this won’t take long.
My name is Daniel, a male Kenyan citizen aged 22 years old. I live at Ngong in Kajiado District. I was born in a family if six members including my parents, however, I stay with my cousin who’s my guardian.
I was introduced to Multimedia Academy by my cousin. Later l personally applied through their website. The school is located at Nairobi International Show Ground on Vivian Collins Avenue. It has a beautiful and a good conducive learning environment.
I am a first year student , studying a diploma in Journalism specializing in TV production, Editing, Sound and Lighting. Since I joined the school, I have learnt a lot. I have learnt the basics in TV, Film, radio, production in general. I have learnt about video quality color, lighting, Audio (sound) and the us of lenses theoretically.
I have grasped most in the above-mentioned areas but I still have a long way to go. In this period I have also improved in my reading and a lot in writing.
Personally, I’m weak in public speaking. I need a mentor to guide me to overcome my weakness. I believe that through this school and with a lot of reading and writing, I will perfect my difficulties. Reading was the greatest challenge that I faced since my first days at the academy but it will be over soon.
In class, we’re eight students. We are team players. We have unity and love amongst us. This helps us do better in class. My best friend is Jane who’s always humble, intelligent and friendly.
Our trainer is an intelligent and a tough guy, but he’s very strict and harsh when you don’t follow his rules and regulations. His best character is that, he likes picking up useless things and weakness from the students and he will begin moulding and turning them into useful and valuable avenues for the students. Kudos to him.
Currently, I’m studying very hard to accomplish my long term dreams in my life. I hope that through my positive spirit, dedication and commitment, I will lead to darker barriers, which I will harvest and enjoy after my three years of education. After completion of my studies, I would like to be the most marketable and demandable, with high professionalism in journalism thus suits modern working conditions and produce excellent results.
Lastly, I do believe that God will bless me to achieve my longing dreams to come true.
My name is Elseba Oranga, I am a lady 23 years of age a Kenyan citizen who is hardworking, disciplined and trustworthy. I came from a family of humble background of four children three boys and one girl. I live at with my relatives in Pipeline area Embakasi, in Nairobi. This place is near the airport.
I sat for my primary exams the year 2000 and I attained three hundred and fifty, I joined high school the year 2001 at Kaimosi Girls High School where I studied from form one to two. From there transferred to Tororo Uganda. Here I sat for my’ O’ levels final exam the year 2004 and I managed to score division two. The year 2006 I proceeded to ‘A” levels scoring fourteen points out of twenty six points in my finals.. due to financial difficulties l had to sit back and I could not go on with my studies. But being an ambitious person I knew it was not the end of my burning passion to make one good journalist in the future.
Currently I am a first year student at International Multimedia Academy Nairobi. I am doing Journalism with concentration in camera operations. I came to learn about the school in 2009 through my Aunt who by that period was accommodating me in Mombasa. She happened to meet and know the chief trainer of the school through her closest friend.
Thanks to international multi-media Academy who came up with ‘study Today pay tomorrow. I have acquired some knowledge at this Academy. Now I have got an ideas concerning the film and media field such as production, lighting and much more. Media is a field that requires a lot of commitment patience and time. Personally, I have a burning passion in me to make it to what/who you want to be, gives me energy to go on. In this course, I have also been able to realise my weaknesses which the teachers are helping me to over-come.
In this training I do face some other difficulties like transport and the distance. At times I end up missing my lessons when I am unable to make it on time.
My class has a total of eight students who at least prove to be ambitious. We work together with each other by cooperating and exchange information and knowledge.
Our teacher indeed is a person who is ready to use any means of teaching us his students to come up with the best from every situation. He is a strict person when it comes to education he does ,not in anyway encourages laziness of any kind. We have achieve lot due to the favourable reading environment, of our school and the of course the conducive atmosphere.
At the end of the three years duration of training and with the best knowledge available here and the availability of the equipment and with the minimum utilization of the resources at this academy, I see myself as the best student in the future.